Revolutionizing Blockchain Voting: An Introduction to 0 Gas Vote on TON Blockchain


This paper presents an innovative approach to blockchain voting through the development of a smart-contract tool designed for the TON (Telegram Open Network) blockchain. Developed by XPTeam for the TON contest running from June 2nd to June 25th, 2023, the 0 Gas Vote project leverages the new ECRECOVER opcode in TON’s TVM (TON Virtual Machine) to enable whitelisted users to cast votes without incurring gas fees, traditionally a barrier to participation in decentralized voting mechanisms.


Blockchain technology offers a transparent, secure, and immutable way to conduct elections and polls, promising to revolutionize the traditional voting systems plagued by inefficiencies and vulnerabilities. However, the associated gas fees for transactions on blockchain networks often deter widespread adoption. Addressing this challenge, the 0 Gas Vote project introduces a method allowing users to participate in voting activities on the TON blockchain without bearing the cost of gas fees, thus enhancing accessibility and participation.


The core of the 0 Gas Vote system is a smart contract deployed on the TON blockchain, which utilizes the ECRECOVER opcode to validate voters’ signatures without spending gas. The process begins with the setup of the voting parameters within the smart contract, including the ballot ID, voting model, and a whitelist of eligible voters’ public keys.

Voters generate a pair of keys and provide the public key to the administrator, who then whitelists the voters by recording their public key hashes on the smart contract. To cast a vote, a voter signs a predetermined message (either for or against the proposal) with their private key. The signature, along with the voter’s choice, is sent to the administrator, who then submits it to the smart contract.

The smart contract, leveraging the ECRECOVER opcode, verifies the signature against the voter’s public key hash stored on the blockchain. Upon successful verification, the vote is recorded, and the tallies for or against the proposal are updated accordingly.

Results and Discussion

The implementation of the 0 Gas Vote system was tested during the specified contest period, with the deployment and operation of the smart contract documented in detail. While the innovative use of ECRECOVER promises a gasless voting experience, the project encountered a significant obstacle with the opcode returning only a status 0 for any hash, v, r, s combination, indicating a potential flaw in the TON TVM’s handling of the opcode.

Despite this setback, the project showcases a pivotal step towards enabling gas-free transactions on the TON blockchain, potentially transforming how voting and governance can be conducted in decentralized systems. The resolution of the ECRECOVER opcode issue remains a critical next step for the project.


The 0 Gas Vote project represents a significant advancement in blockchain voting technologies, addressing the critical barrier of gas fees. By allowing voters to participate without incurring transaction costs, the project opens new avenues for democratic participation in blockchain governance. Further research and development are required to overcome the technical challenges encountered, underscoring the importance of continuous innovation in the blockchain sector.

Contacts and Additional Information

For further details on the 0 Gas Vote project, interested parties can reach out via Telegram: UltraNihilist and YANMSK. A video demonstration of the project is available here.

An In-depth Analysis and Potential Questions on the Zero-Gas Voting Smart Contract on TON

The “0 gas vote-ton” project, submitted by XPTeam for the TON contest from June 2nd to June 25th, 2023, represents a significant innovation in the realm of blockchain voting systems. This smart-contract voting tool enables whitelisted users to vote without incurring gas fees, leveraging the new ECRECOVER opcode in the TON Virtual Machine (TVM). This analysis delves into the project’s design, functionality, and potential areas for further inquiry, aiming to provide a comprehensive understanding of its implications for decentralized voting mechanisms.

Technical Overview:
The project outlines a step-by-step process for deploying and interacting with the voting smart contract on the TON blockchain. Key aspects include the installation of npm requirements, configuration of smart contract parameters (e.g., ballot_id, vote_count_model_selector, admin address), and the deployment process. Voters participate by generating key pairs, signing their votes, and having the admin submit these to the blockchain, with the smart contract verifying signatures using the ECRECOVER opcode.

Professional Insight:
The use of the ECRECOVER opcode is a standout feature, aiming to authenticate voter signatures without necessitating gas fees for each vote. This approach could revolutionize how voting is conducted on blockchain platforms by making it more accessible and cost-effective. Furthermore, the detailed setup process, from contract deployment to vote submission, demonstrates a thorough consideration of user interaction and security.

Areas for Further Inquiry:

  1. ECRECOVER Opcode Reliability: The project notes an issue where the ECRECOVER opcode returns a status of 0 for any input, suggesting a potential bug in the implementation. A critical question arises on how this affects the contract’s security and integrity, and what steps are being taken to address this anomaly.
  2. Scalability and Performance: Given the project’s reliance on admin intervention for vote submission, questions about scalability and efficiency in larger elections emerge. How does the system perform under significant load, and what mechanisms are in place to ensure timely processing of votes?
  3. Security Measures: The security implications of having an admin responsible for submitting votes need closer examination. What safeguards are implemented to prevent misuse or manipulation of votes by the admin or other attackers?
  4. Voter Anonymity and Privacy: While the project outlines a method for voting without gas fees, it’s essential to consider the privacy implications for voters. How does the system ensure voter anonymity, and what measures are in place to protect voter choices from being linked to their blockchain addresses?
  5. Adaptability to Other Use Cases: The project hints at potential extensions, such as creating a multi-signature wallet for TON. Exploring other applications of this voting mechanism could unveil new opportunities and challenges. What considerations should be made when adapting this system to different contexts or use cases?

The “0 gas vote-ton” project offers an intriguing approach to blockchain-based voting, potentially lowering barriers to participation through the innovative use of the ECRECOVER opcode. However, the noted issue with opcode performance raises important questions about its current reliability and the broader implications for secure, decentralized voting systems. As the project evolves, addressing these questions and exploring the system’s scalability, security, and adaptability will be crucial in realizing its full potential. Engaging with these inquiries can stimulate further development and refinement, contributing to the advancement of blockchain technology in democratic processes.