Implementing N-of-M Multisignature Wallets in Blockchain Systems

The evolution of blockchain technology has introduced innovative ways to enhance security and flexibility in transaction management. Among these, the concept of multisignature (multisig) wallets stands out, providing a robust mechanism for executing transactions. This document delves into the technical architecture and operational framework of an N-of-M multisig wallet system, designed to require at least N out of a predefined set of M signers (participants) to approve an order for its execution. Such wallets facilitate a wide range of transactions, from simple transfers to complex administrative functions, thereby offering an elevated level of security and versatility.


Multisignature wallets are advanced cryptographic schemes that enforce a group consensus before executing any transaction. This system is particularly beneficial in managing collective funds, ensuring that no single entity can unilaterally control the assets. The following table summarizes the key components of the multisig wallet system:

Component Description
Signers Independent entities authorized to approve order executions. Signers can be individuals, hardware wallets, or other smart contracts with their own logic.
Proposers Entities permitted to suggest new orders but not to approve them. This role is designed to facilitate the submission of transactions without granting full control.
Multisig The smart contract that executes approved orders, holding the assets and permissions. It also tracks the number of orders and the current sets of Signers and Proposers.
Orders Child contracts representing individual transactions. Each order contains its content and the approvals from Signers.

Operational Flow

The process for executing a transaction within the multisig wallet framework involves several steps:

  1. A proposer creates a new order comprising various transactions from the Multisig address and requests the Multisig to initiate the approval process.
  2. The Multisig verifies the request’s authenticity, deploys a child sub-contract (Order) containing the order’s details, and awaits approvals.
  3. Signers independently send approval messages to the Order contract.
  4. Upon receiving sufficient approvals, the Order contract requests the Multisig to execute the order.
  5. The Multisig authenticates the Order and verifies the Signers’ set’s relevance before executing the transaction.
  6. Orders requiring more than 255 transactions are processed through an internal_execute mechanism, ensuring all transactions are completed efficiently.
  7. The Multisig validates and continues execution of transactions initiated by itself, ensuring a secure and closed-loop operation.


The multisig wallet system offers several security guarantees:

  • Only authorized proposers and signers can initiate and approve new orders, respectively.
  • Any change in the signers’ set invalidates all existing orders, ensuring alignment with current permissions.
  • Compromise of fewer than N signers does not prevent the execution of orders or the proposal of new ones, including those that would remove compromised signers.
  • The wallet’s logic is immutable post-deployment, ensuring consistent operational integrity.

Implementation Details

The project structure is organized as follows:

  • contracts: Contains the source code for all smart contracts and their dependencies.
  • wrappers: Provides wrapper classes for contracts, including serialization/deserialization functions and compilation utilities.
  • tests: Houses tests for validating the contracts’ functionality.
  • scripts: Includes deployment scripts and other utility scripts for project management.

Usage Instructions

To build, test, and deploy the multisig wallet, the following commands are utilized:

  • Build: Execute npx blueprint build or yarn blueprint build to compile the contracts.
  • Test: Use npx blueprint test or yarn blueprint test to run the test suite.
  • Deploy/Run Scripts: To deploy the contracts or run other scripts, use npx blueprint run or yarn blueprint run.

This document outlines the technical and operational framework of the N-of-M multisig wallet system, emphasizing its security features and flexibility in managing blockchain transactions. Through careful implementation and adherence to the outlined processes, the multisig wallet serves as a powerful tool for enhancing transaction security and consensus within blockchain networks.